Brick Or Click? Finding A Degree That Fits You

The advance of internet technology has created one more channel for you to earn your degree. Online education has growth rapidly, online degrees from prestige and proper accredited online universities have widely accepted in the job market, making online education a popular education channel selected by many students to earn their degree online. But, this “click to earn a degree” trend might not fit you well if you are a kind person that needs a “brick & mortar” on-campus programs to drive you toward your degree completion. What type of degree program best suit you, a “brick” or a “click”?

“Brick” Group – On Campus Education

To be success as online student, you need to have a certain behavior and criteria to ensure your success; else you might fall out from your study and fail to earn your degree at last. The best way to know which type of degree best fit you is do a self assessment and if you found you have below personal behaviors, then, an on-campus education might best fit you:
* You prefer to learn by listening, speaking, reading and writing. You like to have discussions face-to-face with your peers and lecturers, and if the encounter gets lively, you will feel your fellow students’ enthusiasm, even if you don’t speak yourself.
* Social life and face-to-face interaction with fellow students are importance to you. You like campus life and prefer to make face-to-face contacts with your professors and mentors for guidance.
* You need reminders from your lecturers on your assignment due dates, need to attend tests and quizzes to keep you motivated to finish the semester and collect your credits.
* You prefer to have a fix or pre-plan learning schedule and you are able to adjust your time to fit the fixed schedule.

“Click” Group – Online Education

Online education has many advantages that can benefit you if you earn your degree online. Flexibility, self-pace, self-planning and learning from your comfort home are among the key benefits that enjoy by most online students. You may like to enjoy these benefits offer by an online degree program, but you need to have below characteristics to be success as an online student:
* You like freedom but you are able to commit to yourself without the need of a mentor guide to complete a task. Your task is to complete and get a degree. If you can do self-motivation and commit to yourself to complete your study program, then you can enjoy the freedom offer by online degree program. The flexible and self-pace learning styles give you the greatest freedom to plan your time and fit the learning schedule based on your preference.
* You are able to learn by mainly reading a text format document. You will have hard time to learn with this method if you are a kind of person who will fall into a sleep whenever you see text only materials. Be able to learn through reading text is the key factor to be a success online student because of most learning materials are in text format.
* Social life and face-to-face contact with peers, lecturers and mentors are optional for you because you are comfort to communicate with them through online channels such as online chats, online discussion board and online college forums.

In Summary

You always have two options to pursue your degree, a “brick” on-campus or a “click” online education. Do your own self assessment to determine one that best fit you.

Taking Up International MBA in India

International Masters in Business Administration is also known as IMBA and is the powerful combination of basic business education and global processes. When you take this degree, you have the power to get groomed and trained for international arenas in a big way. Most people take up IMBA outside the country, but as matter of fact, you can take up international MBA in India, as well.

When you ask yourself why you need a MBA degree, you will find many answers. Most students take the degree to ensure that have hold on all the modern business elements and can compete with the global students. At the first place, it is wise not to get confused with the varied kinds of MBA programs. Students generally opt for universities in the United States or United Kingdom, and the trend has been the same over the years. However, there are many accredited institutions that offer the program in India.

The main reason why you would take a degree in international business studies is the fact that you want to go global. For example, if you are studying about the operations of particular company, you will have to learn about its operations in many countries rather than limiting your knowledge to general operations. For applying for the degree outside India, you need to give a test called TOEFL and sometimes other tests, as well. However, when you are applying in India as a citizen of the country, you can apply without the test.

International Masters in Business Administration can focus on many areas, depending on the course structure offered by the college. The list may include international relations, political science, and sociology. There are courses that are interdisciplinary, as well. It is obvious that when you are taking IMBA, you need to be much more disciplined and organized than a traditional MBA. The level of knowledge that you will get from the course will be much deeper. You will learn to take risks with currency without making losses, keeping the economic and political facts and specifics in mind.

If you are willing to have a special degree that will give you a strong foothold in business, this is the right degree for you. Anyone who is willing to have a degree that will offer the chance to settle in many parts of the globe must opt for IMBA. In fact, when you take this degree, you open new dimensions for yourself. You can work for many multinational companies across the globe without having any defined limits.

India is one of the best countries for education, and when you have the option to complete your International MBA in India, you don’t need to look elsewhere. The amount you will pay for the course here will be much less than what you would spend outside the country. The colleges and institutions here are extremely well built on course structure and infrastructure and offer you the edge that you always wanted in your career. There are many colleges that you can check online for IMBA.

Use A Pre-written Term Papers As Models To Jump Start Your Own Assignment.

The single most challenging task, which needs to be tackled, while still in school, college or university is the writing of book reports, essays, term Papers, theses and dissertations. As most teachers would confirm, writing builds character. Integrity comes with referencing the sources for which, ideas, themes, facts and much more are taken. Choosing the right topic and following-up with factually sound and aesthetically pleasing writing styles helps in maturity of thought and communication skills.

All of the above mentioned traits can be easily found in many students who score exceptionally well in all their academic courses with near perfect GPA scores. Yet, as they say, ?some are born great?? there are others who have to work hard to achieve greatness (ignoring for the sake of our argument the ones who have greatness thrust upon them ? case in point: one of our past presidents).

Support groups can be a great help in gathering the right research material, however compiling a term paper, or any other assignment for that matter, which will guarantee a grade that you would like to call your girl friend about or take home to your mother requires a different approach as most would think.

Writing with the right format in mind, proper English (grammar, spelling, punctuation, etc.), exact reference styles, etc. are some of the few aspects which will help you in achieving that straight and pointy A. The right flow of the paragraphs from one to the other, the presentation of the concepts in a way that conveys the exact idea which you had when you wrote the title of your paper is something which distinguishes an average writer from an exceptionally talented student.

Here comes the crux of this attempt of an article, whereby, to attempt the impossible all you need to do is read up the papers written by the greats. Emulate their writing and presentation styles, use of vocabulary, etc. and you will end up not half as bad. This is true for most of us average Toms, Dicks and Harry Potters.

Finding these grade winning papers is easier than most of you may think, as they will be scattered away in plain sight and only viewable by those who seek them. In simpler English, browse the internet, ask your teachers, go through your local library. Once you find that paper, have researched the right information, emulated the writing style of the greats, referenced your paper in the right paper, proof-read your finished paper, pray that you get a good grade. Hope you will find this information useful and just maybe you have learned something if you have read this far.

Disclaimer: If you do not get a good grade by using the above information, just go back online and read more information on how to write a term paper.

Study Overseas In New Zealand And Other Countries

Going to study overseas is becoming increasingly popular and is seen more and more as a wonderful opportunity to be taken. But overseas education does not necessarily mean going to a none English speaking country and plenty of those countries offer great facilities for an international education.

New Zealand is actually a great example for those who want to get their education abroad. The country has become more and more popular over the years and is now welcoming around eighty thousand students from all over the world in its universities, colleges?
On top of being a great place to get an overseas education, New Zealand offers a lot as a place to live. You will quickly find that accommodation really is at a top standard and usually close to the places where you would go to study but would also be available at a very good price that suit students. Not only is the accommodation good, but so is the public transport to facilitate your travels in the cities and the legendary countryside.

The country has around eight big national universities that are offering different degrees from commerce to science.
The quality of the education offered there is actually being recognised worldwide.

Not only is New Zealand a fantastic place to study overseas, but it also is an amazing place to live. It is a beautiful multicultural country not really highly populated with only four million inhabitants coming from various ethnic origins like obviously British and Europeans but also Maori and Pacific Island origins.

Being a foreign student there you would still be allowed to work a certain amount of hours in New Zealand. There, student on a three year course are allowed to work for up to fifteen hours a week during their academic year and summer holidays.
But to be allowed to work in this country, students will have to have a variation of conditions to their student permit by completing a specific application form.
Like many other countries you will need a student visa if you wish to study more than three months in New Zealand. But if you are coming from certain countries, you may actually not need a student visa but simply to apply for a student permit after your arrival on the country.
Interestingly enough, if you wish to study in New Zealand for more than six months, you will need to provide a completed temporary entry x-ray certificate showing that you have been screened for tuberculosis.

California Job Outlook: Healthcare Workers In Huge Demand! By Dotty

Temperature is right for Healthcare Opportunities
A healthcare career might be just the cure for your occupational woes. Whether it?s working with patients, being a key contributor in a medical office team, or opening up your own business, healthcare is a satisfying, challenging and exciting career choice. And there?s never been a better time to train for a healthcare position. With the aging of the baby boomers (those born between 1946 and 1964), a shift from inpatient to outpatient care, and the expansion of healthcare centers, the demand for healthcare workers is expected to increase in the years to come, especially in California.

Below are the fastest growing Healthcare Careers in California:
*Dental Assisting*
Average Annual Wage: $31,985
2002-2012 Job Growth: 57%
Future Career Paths: Dental Hygienist, Licensed Vocational Nurse

*Health Claims Examiner/Medical Biller*
Average Annual Wage: $31,772
2002-2012 Job Growth: 41%
Future Career Paths: Medical Coder, Insurance Adjuster
*Massage Therapy*
Average Annual Wage: $36,340
2002-2012 Job Growth: 21%
Future Career Paths: Physical Therapist, Day Spa Manager

*Medical Assistant*
Average Annual Wage: $28,890
2002-2012 Job Growth: 46%
Future Career Paths: Licensed Vocational Nurse, Medical Coder

*Optical Dispensing*
Average Annual Wage: $32,441
2002-2012 Job Growth: 23%
Future Career Paths: Store Owner, Manufacturers Sales Rep

*Pharmacy Technician*
Average Annual Wage: $33,632
2002-2012 Job Growth: 31%
Future Career Paths: Occupational Therapy Assistant, Dietetic Technician

*Surgical Technology*
Average Annual Wage: $40,178
2002-2012 Job Growth: 36%
Future Career Paths: Central Supply Mgr, Asst. Operating Room Admin.

*Diagnostic Medical Sonagraphy*
Average Annual Wage: $60,908
2002-2012 Job Growth: 21%
Future Career Paths: Physician?s Assistant, Medical Technologist

** Salaries listed above are average annual wages reported by the Employment Development Department of the State of California and do not reflect entry level salaries for the healthcare positions listed.

Key Success Factors
Do you have a genuine desire to help people? Then chances are you?ll be successful as a healthcare professional. The four other critical skills you?ll need to succeed in health care are:

? Team player. Healthcare is a group activity, so people skills and teamwork are essential.
? Compassionate and caring. Helping take care of people requires patience and a service-orientated attitude.
? Comfortable in any setting. You might be part of a huge organization or a small staff, working at the local, state, regional or national level. The possibilities are endless.
? Desire for lifelong learning. You?ll need to keep studying and learning throughout your career to keep up with the latest developments in the field.

Healthcare provides a helping hand
Healthcare professionals are essential when it comes to caring for the physical, mental, social and emotional wellbeing of individuals. Whether you?re a health information specialist or a dental receptionist, all support staff play a vital role in patient care. As an important contributor to the healthcare system, you?ll need to be able to establish trust and credibility with fellow workers and patients. Good communication skills, ability to follow directions, and strong listening ability are important, especially if you?re working in a clinical environment.

Technical abilities are a must
Technology has altered the practice of healthcare. No matter what the healthcare field, an ability to work with computers and high-tech equipment is a powerful asset. As a medical biller, you will probably be asked to help process some claims electronically. Medical clinical assistants may need to deal with an Electronic Medical Record. Pharmacy technicians often operate automated pill dispensers. But if you?re unfamiliar with such tools, don?t worry?your all-important career college will help introduce you to these concepts.

Exciting environments
Is it any wonder that shows like NBC?s ?ER? and ?Scrubs,? and CBS? ?Rescue 911,? have been so popular? They show the drama of medicine and the reality of life-and-death situations. Healthcare is filled with stimulating and interesting interactions. Of course, big-city hospitals bustle with activity, but even a quiet suburban assisted living facility, chiropractic office, retail pharmacy, HMO, or medical clinic have everyday drama and fascinating daily interactions. If you like a variety of tasks, work well under stress, and take pride in doing a job well done, then you have what it takes to be a valuable member of the healthcare team.

Lifelong learning
Medical-related workplaces have always been settings that support and encourage professional growth and development. Opportunities for on-the-job training and continuing education abound, and often employers will subsidize your schooling. You?ll also have lots of opportunities for advancement, so your ambition will serve you well in a healthcare profession. If you?re interested in a career like massage therapy, be assured that complementary and alternative medicines are being integrated into conventional healthcare systems, offering you even greater opportunities. No matter what your area of interest, be sure you start out at a school that provides a positive learning environment and is prepared to help you launch your career in this exciting arena.

Reality check
Although not every healthcare professional works with patients, those who do will find that people are sicker, older, and living longer, often with chronic diseases. Keeping a positive attitude is key for maintaining a cheerful office or clinic. Are you up to the challenge? Being a paid caregiver requires confidence, commitment and compassion.

The clock never stops ticking in the healthcare profession. Perhaps it?s time for you to join this financially rewarding, stable and gratifying occupation. One recent study showed that California led other states in the number of advertised healthcare job vacancies, with other regions also showing a strong demand across the nation.
One healthcare worker said it best: ?Touching someone?s life in a positive way is the most rewarding work that there is.?

To request free information about the healthcare career training programs offered in southern California, visit .
To request free information about the healthcare career training programs offered in northern California?s San Joaquin Valley, visit .

About American Career College For over 25 years, American Career College (ACC) has been helping thousands of students get their start in the healthcare industry. ACC offers nine healthcare training programs at campuses in Los Angeles, Orange County and Norco, California:
Dental Assisting
Health Claims Examiner/Medical Biller
Massage Therapy
Optical Dispensing
Vocational Nursing
Pharmacy Technician
Surgical Technology
Diagnostic & Medical Sonography (Ultrasound)
Medical Assistant

About A.C.I. Career College At its McHenry Avenue campus in Modesto, CA, the College offers six accredited healthcare training programs:
Health Information Specialist
Medical Clinical Assistant
Medical-Dental Administrative Assistant
Pharmacy Technician
Massage Therapist
Medical Dental Receptionist

Dotty Zukoff is a freelance writer who specializes in writing articles on career education opportunities. She contributes regularly to e-zines and works with strategic marketing companies that specialize in lead generation marketing for career schools, including Smart Prospector () and Effective Student Marketing ().

Uk Colleges And Universities

First, there is a difference between further education and higher education. Further education is provided by colleges and gives a number of special qualifications such as Business Study, Engineering, Catering etc. They are specially designed for basic knowledge study, which is an integral part of further education and special subject study. Often further education students are able to combine a few subjects and get two or three certificates accordingly. Most further education students are adults who are above 21 years old. They prefer to study part-time and go to work while studying. Anyway, it is your choice whether you will study full-time or part-time. Usually part-time jobs allow further education students cover their tuition fees expenses.

UK educational institutions are divided into state and private colleges and universities. Some decades ago state colleges and universities considerably differed from each other, especially in education funding system and costs. Nowadays both types of institutions have high tuition fees and smaller amount of grants, University Access Funds and student loans assistance programs. Universities UK provide a wide range of subjects and qualifications to study. Education programmes at universities include lectures, seminars, workshops, trainings and practices. Some of them even organize working experience for a year or less. High tuition fees cover access to university books, software and computers. Be aware of ALL university facilities before applying for study: you must know well what you will have for your big money!

Although higher education requires much study, research, writing and reading the most study process is independent; lectures, seminars and workshops take much less time than self-research and study. Of course you will be signed your own individual tutor who will guard your study and control your results, but be ready to become a self-organized student who plans his education process himself.

All universities and even further education colleges in UK have specially assigned consultants who provide all information which you need. They are happy to consult you even in your private matters. However, it would be better to check the university or college environment by yourself. For example, such aspects as social environment, college/university city or town society, availability of night clubs, sports clubs or beaches play a significant role in our life. City/town living standards will help you count your accommodation and living expenses; remember, you are going to spend a couple of years there!

Each year both private and state universities reduce their financial assistance, state and university grants cover only about 10 percent of education fees. Find out as much as possible about financial aid availabilities, at least you can apply for student education loans system. This system is the easiest way for funding education in UK now. However, you should remember it is repayable and sometimes has high interest ratio which expands to 20 years for paybacks to be affordable.

The Application of Nano-TiO2 Photocatalyst

Titanium dioxide is a Titanium(IV) oxide compounds.According to its physical structure, Titanium dioxide can be divided into rutile, anatase; crystal system tetragonal. Titanium dioxide used for photocatalyst, cosmetics, and can rely on UV disinfection and sterilization, are being widely developed, and have the opportunity to become a new industrial future.

Global energy is becoming less and less, and environmental pollution is to take advantage of the green and environmentally friendly energy to deal with the increasingly serious environmental pollution has become a serious problem that we must face in the 21st century. sunlight is nature’s most common light source, how to use it effectively ,to take full advantage of our handing of environmental issues, is a major trend of development in the future.

Photolysis of water into hydrogen

Hydrogen is an ideal fuel, so clean and unlimited water and solar preparation of hydrogen by the worldwide attention. Although larger than its wide band gap energy effectively inspire TiO2, although due to H2 in the the Titanium dioxidesurface generation has a lot of potential, so pure Titanium dioxidecan not photolysis of water into hydrogen. In order to solve this problem, design a variety of experimental conditions, such as (a) pressure to Ti electrode bias (>0.25v), this system is like an electrochemical reactor effectively separate the photo-generated electrons and holes; (b) depositing a metal particles (especially the precious metals such as Pt, Au, Pd, Ag, etc.) on the surface of TiO2 , reducing the overvoltage generated by the gas on the catalyst surface.

Photoelectric conversion solar cells

using semiconductor sunlight into electrical energy which can be transmitted and stored, is one of the hottest semiconductor photocatalysts directions,especially the dye-sensitized solar cell. Sunlight is able to excite electronic from Titanium dioxidevalance band to the conduction band, can generate light voltage, when the closed circuit is formed with an external circuit, thus, the photocurrent is generated.

Organics photocatalytic synthesis

The conversion of organic matter by oxidation-reduction reaction is achieved, may use optical excitation Titanium dioxideband electrons and valence band holes to be realized.However, the Titanium dioxidephotocatalytic reaction often involves the highly reactive free radicals which do not have selective, because of its reaction selectivity is not high, made its application in organic synthesis limited.

Photocatalytic degradation of pollutants

Now, with the acceleration of industrialization and urbanization, the global confronted with serious water shortages, pollution Water Pollution reduce water use, exacerbated water shortages.Currently, the use of non-toxic, fast response and efficient degradation, no secondary pollution nano-Titanium dioxide photocatalytic method for treatment of sewage. Dye wastewater, wastewater, surface active agent, Freon, oily waste water, waste water containing heavy metals and so on can be degradation by nano-Titanium dioxide oxidative. The main advantages of this technology are: degradation is not selective, almost any degradation of organic matter; fast response, organic pollutants can be completely degraded into carbon dioxide and water in a short period of time;low energy consumption, mild reaction conditions; no secondary pollution.

Things To Do Before Studying Abroad In Asia

I’ve talked to many students who ask me if a study abroad in Hong Kong program is worth it. My answer to every one of them is an astounding yes. Even if the standard of education in your current school or university is excellent, it still can’t compare to the educational experience a student will enjoy when they study abroad in Asia.

A study abroad South Korea program is a fun yet amazing experience. So many students dream of leaving the country, but a study abroad Asia program is your chance to just that. However, these programs are more than getting on an airplane and arriving.

Here are a few pieces of advice you should think about before signing up to study abroad Hong Kong:

Your visas, passports and official documentation – It doesn’t matter if you are part of a study abroad Asia program or signing up for a school-sponsored exchange program, you will need a valid passport as well as specific documents mandatory for certain countries. I recommend visiting the U.S. Department of State?s travel portal for a list of documents you’ll need in order to study abroad in Asia. It?s a good idea to apply as early as possible for a visa if you don’t have one already.

Currency exchange rate – It doesn’t matter where you are going to study abroad in Asia. You better know what type of cash you?ll need. Look up the exchange rate for that specific country and try to get a basic understand of what their currency is worth compared to the U.S. dollar.

Stay safe – Be sure to check out the U.S. Department of State?s list of travel warnings for Americans abroad. It provides information about potential threats to Americans overseas. True, you won’t need to worry to much when you study abroad in Hong Kong but you still don?t want to wander in or near an unsafe area. My rule of thumb is to avoid any political demonstrations while you study abroad in Asia, even if your inner activist aches.

Living arrangement – I know a study abroad Asia program takes up a lot of your free time with classes or a enjoying a fun night out on the town, but you’re still going to need somewhere to sleep at night. Some schools provide residence halls, but pay attention to their rules and restrictions. In some instances, you?ll be staying with a host family. Pick a dictionary and maybe learn a few of their some basic phrases and sayings before you study abroad South Korea.

Keep in touch with family – You’re going to want to stay in close contact with your family and friends during your time study abroad Korea and sometimes e-mail just doesn’t cut it. Talk to your school or search online for international cell phones and plans. Before you leave find out if your cellphone can be used overseas and what types of fees will be charged.

Graduation Farewell

For all those who have manoeuvred through school and college, there is one day that we all have to face ? graduation day. A day where you breathe freedom yet shed tears for leaving behind the place where you transformed from a boy to a man or from girl to a lady.

Graduation day is filled with multi-emotions, you feel elated yet dejected. Happy yet sad. As this will be among the last days you will share with your friends and professors. The feeling seeps in later as the day concludes and you wish it never ends. Another happy effect of graduation day is because of our teachers who cajole and pamper us unlike their routine days. Smiles spread on every face, they tell us so lovingly that they had a great time even though it?s not completely true. And then we realize that they are so flexible and lovable.

There are also times on your graduation day when various your not so good friends come up to you and apologize for their behaviour. You are taken aback and fall short of words. They hug you and you hug them, a generous gesture to forgive and forget and also communicates that you are and will be a great friend. So you see friends and not so good friends hugging one another. Everything is possible on graduation day.

And then comes the climax. The entire time you just hung around with your friends, now you have to step up the podium in a place designated to you. Short ones in front and the tall behind. Once everyone is adjusted you set your smile and then flashbulbs go blink blink, you throw your mortarboard in the air and the flashbulbs blink more.

But there are the speeches to attend to before all the merriment begins. Every word is thoroughly checked before it goes on air. The first speech is usually done by the valedictorian who elaborates the adventures of a student and the highs and lows of it. Sometimes there is another speech given by an ex-student or an outsider who elucidates life outside the institution and how one should gear up for it. Advice, wisdom, encouragement is spelled out to motivate the graduating students. So they feel proud of themselves and are ready to work up the ladder.

If you are privileged to give the student speech, do not shudder. Trust yourself. Take your professors help to jot down all the points you have to cover. You are not the one giving advice, so stick to the format. If you are an ex-student or a guest and are asked to give the speech then think of all the points you will give your son or daughter when they on the threshold of working life. Even though there is a world of information to give, do not get boring with your speech. Make it exciting with examples and real life situations so the students are hooked to every word.

A beautiful day comes to an end with hugs once again and promises to keep in touch. Wishes for a good life and luck flies in every corner while tear eyed students part filled with happy memories.

Football – College Football, Part 1

If you are interested in football, especially in college football, read on to learn some interesting insight into the roots of the game.

In the 1890s college football had already created strong emotions of love and hate. Big-time eastern football had demonstrated that it could draw large crowds, create alumni support, and build an identity that would attract new students. The fact that it had little to do with classical education bothered only the traditionalists on campus and a handful of crotchety purists elsewhere who wrote critically of football in magazines, newspaper articles, and official college reports.

Outward appearances may have changed, but the gridiron problems in that era appear remarkably similar to the present. In the 1890s big-time recruiters and alumni contacts scoured the eastern prep schools for talented juniors and seniors ready to entice them to Harvard, Yale, or Princeton. Occasionally, unscrupulous alumni convinced students to quit high school before they graduated in order to enroll at an institution with a big-time team. Boosters funneled tuition money to poor but athletically talented boys from the coal fields of Pennsylvania and the industrial towns of the Northeast to preparatory schools in order to prepare them for big-time college athletics. Some of these young men were in their mid-twenties when they finally entered college. Other athletes went from school to school selling their services, phantom players who had no academic ties with the institution.

Big-time alumni football entrepreneurs?the counterpart of today’s athletic directors?arranged a schedule of games which began with weak teams and worked up to big money games held in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia. Gridiron profits supported stadium building, sumptuous living quarters and training tables for players, as well as Pullman cars for retinues of trainers, massagers, alumni coaches, and other hangers-on who followed the team to the big games. What was left over went to support an array of lesser sports that big-time football had eclipsed.

At the major football schools critics complained that football players became the campus elite, admired by their fellow students and regarded skeptically by many faculty. In the absence of professional football, players basked in the attention of the media, and the names of the gridiron stars appeared regularly in the sports pages of big city newspapers. Even college faculty and presidents had to be properly worshipful of football and its elite because they knew that football advertised their schools and helped to retain the loyalty of alumni. As a result, they often ignored or remained blissfully unaware of scams to admit unqualified students, play athletes who never enrolled, or resort to stratagems to keep weak players eligible.

Though booster organizations did not exist outside of alumni groups, booster alumni and townspeople, student managers, and even faculty engaged in unethical acts. A Princeton alumnus named Patterson entertained football players and made every effort to entice them to his alma mater. Authorities at Swarthmore lured the huge lineman, Bob (“Tiny”) Maxwell, from the University of Chicago and arranged for the president of the college to pass his bills to a prominent alumnus. Professor Woodrow Wilson, a fanatic Princeton enthusiast, shamelessly used football when he spoke to alumni organizations and vigorously opposed football reform in the 1890s and early 1900s. In contrast, Theodore Roosevelt, a Harvard graduate, who gloried in the strenuous life and strongly supported Harvard football, turned against football brutality in 1905 and initiated the first efforts in his capacity as president to reform the spirit in which big-time football teams competed.

We know that the prototype for athletic organization began at eastern institutions in the 1880s and 1890s. Yale’s Walter Camp, “the father of American football,” became the model for the coach and athletic director. While pursuing a business career, he also acted as Yale’s de facto vice president for athletic operations, who dominated the rules committees and ceaselessly publicized the game. From the profits of big games in Boston and New York, Camp created an ample reserve fund that supported lesser sports, afforded lush treatment for athletes, and provided the money that eventually went toward building Yale Bowl, the first of the modern football stadiums. By making Yale into an athletic powerhouse, Camp built the school’s reputation, making it second only to Harvard. Because he succeeded so well, Camp became the first big-name foe of sweeping football reforms?and an especially hard-core opponent of the forward pass.

By the turn of century the deaths of players in football led state legislators to introduce laws banning the gridiron game. Players for big-time teams, critics charged, were coached to injure their opponents or “put them out of business.” The nature of the game, with its mass formations and momentum plays, made football less an athletic contest than a collegiate version of warlike combat. Eventually the violence in football led to attempts to reduce its brutality through reforms. New rules put a strong emphasis on better officiating and on less dangerous formations, but they did not necessarily improve the athletic environment.

The deaths and brutality presented an excellent opportunity to root out the worst excesses of the runaway football culture. In the 1890s and early 1900s, responding to public opinion, professors and presidents spent a great deal of time talking about the overemphasis of intercollegiate athletics?and, in some cases, passing rules at the conference and institutional level to regulate college sports. Why, then, did college presidents and faculty, who had far more authority over their students than their modern counterparts, fail to control the gridiron beast? Put differently, why did school presidents and faculty often themselves become part of the athletic problem?

. One problem might be that faculty members played major roles in introducing early football. In addition to Woodrow Wilson, who served as a part-time coach at Wesleyan, an English instructor at Oklahoma who had recently come from Harvard, Vernon Parrington, taught the fundamentals of football on the windswept practice field in Oklahoma. At Miami University of Ohio the president called upon all able-bodied members of the faculty to go out for football. In a game between North Carolina and Virginia a member of the North Carolina faculty scored the winning touchdown. Often the faculty proved helpful to the budding football programs in other ways such as giving athletes passing grades or writing articles arguing that football built intellect. Only a handful, like Wisconsin’s Frederick Jackson Turner, made a determined effort to root out the abuses in the culture of college football such as the intense media attention given to the sport and its tendency to cushion star athletes from academic requirements. That was more than a century ago. When we turn to the 1980s and 1990s what do we encounter? Outward appearances of football may have changed, but the problems appear hauntingly similar. Big-time football teams induce players to attend their institution with offers of cars and money as well as running booster operations to funnel cash to blue-chip players. Players who obtain special admission or enter the institution fraudulently do so only to play football and often leave without graduating. Schools manage to keep their players eligible by manufacturing credits or by easing them into simple courses in which they are assured of receiving passing grades. Some coaches engage in violence toward players in practice and even try to drive them out of school so that they can use their scholarship slot.

Athletic departments and institutional officials have become obsessed with the potential for profits from televised big games or bowl games. Big-time teams in the NCAA try to manipulate the organization so that they will be able to have more coaches, scholarships, and only minimal academic requirements. Players commit acts of violence and brutality, then manage to avoid the consequences. College presidents whose salaries and prominence fall far short of the head football coaches dutifully show up at football games and related alumni events, treading cautiously around the mire of big-time college athletics.

All of this has added up to major athletic scandals, most of them involving big-time football. Scandals such as the pay-for-play violations at Southern Methodist and Auburn from the late 1970s to the early 1990s man-aged to create internal disruptions and negative publicity at numbers of big-name institutions. Yet, in spite of the obvious flaws in college football, it continues to enlarge its grip on the major universities. The athletic foundations persist in enlarging their massive gridiron complexes, selling the rights to buy tickets for upscale luxury boxes and suites, and then collecting additional revenues for the sale of high-priced tickets. The major teams have created indoor facilities out of donations that might have gone to deserving but impoverished non-athletes for scholarships. While quasi-professional student-athletes play the game, ordinary students have little to do with the sport. In an atmosphere of highly specialized career coaches, publicists, trainers, and tutors, college football reflects more than ever the professionalism that reformers long ago set out to de-emphasize.

No one would deny that football constitutes one of the most entertaining and enjoyable spectator sports. In the early days some faculty believed that the student enthusiasm for football would enable the institutions to alleviate the pervasive antisocial behavior of undergraduates. Being aware of its appeal, most athletic critics and reformers attempted to change football rather than to abolish it. The few colleges that dropped football did so it because the school had no choice or, occasionally, because a college president happened to wield unusual power at a critical moment in football’s history. Far and away the largest group of thoughtful gridiron critics have attempted to reform football and to reshape it in such a way that it fit more reasonably and appropriately into the spirit and life of the university. Why have they not succeeded?

Beginning in the 1890s and continuing into the 1990s, reformers have spent tens of thousands of hours attending meetings and conferences, devising new rules to solve the latest problems that have cropped up, and generally trying to work out better systems for their own institutions; in the early 1900s moderate reformers founded the NCAA to deal with deaths and brutality and to put football securely under the thumb of the faculty and college presidents. Again in the early 1950s, in a groundswell of outrage against cheating, gambling, and subsidies for athletes, college presidents and faculty members tried to create stricter standards to reduce the greed and professionalism in football rather than to drop it altogether. In the 1980s and early 1990s an outbreak of scandal in big-time football resulted the same response of temporary uneasiness and halting reforms which had become by then a pattern in the history of college football.

The outbreak in the 1980s once again clearly emphasized the failure of reform to bring about real change. In three major periods of gridiron upheaval the colleges have been unable or unwilling to eliminate the causes of chronic cheating. While political reforms by Congress and the states have achieved some enduring success, football and big-time athletics generally have had to face the same issues again and again?much like Sisyphus repeatedly pushing the stone uphill. Why does big-time football manage to be almost constantly in a state of crisis? Is there some quality about football, or college sports generally, or a flaw in higher education which causes this turmoil? If the Greek ideal of education stands for the training of body, spirit, and mind, why have the colleges failed so abysmally at their mission?

Good question, isn’t it? But the answer is beyond the subject of this article ? and, unfortunately, beyond the expertise of the college football experts.